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botanical name:
Smyrnium perfoliatum
Smyrnium perfoliatum © Deeproot Plant Base
common name:  Perfoliate Alexanders
family:  Apiaceae
characteristics: annual/biennial
height: 1.50m
width: 0.50m
growth rate: fast
growth habit: erect
leaf colour: green
flower colour: yellow
fruit colour: black
stem/bark: green
main season: Spring
edible symbol edible
aspect: full sun, part shade
conditions: moist soil, clay soil, sandy soil
preferred soil pH: any
minimum temp: -23°C
USDA zone: 6 to 10
Biennial with a tuberous taproot resembling a small turnip and tough stems, becoming woody with maturity. Toothed, perfoliate, mid-green leaves. Umbels of yellow flowers with yellow-green bracts, in April and May. Later produces small black seeds.

Moist, well drained soil in sun or part shade. Thrives in light deciduous woodlands.
Can become an invasive weed in favourable growing conditions.

From seed.

Edible, with a celery like flavour. The seeds are sometimes used as a pepper substitute.

other notes:
native to Southern Europe, South West Asia and North Africa. Sometimes naturalized in Britain, where it can threaten native bluebells, as they both grow in similar conditions.

Listed as potentially invasive in the UK (Wildlife and Countryside Act, Schedule 9)
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